Diabetic patient education is the first requirement that diabetics need. They need to be educated about what causes diabetes as well as the problems that they can encounter They will also need to learn the areas that they will have to have self care responsibility over.Diabetics self care responsibilities include daily glucose monitoring, changing eating habits, starting an exercise plan, and what the patient needs to do to cooperate with the members of their healthcare team. Care for diabetes includes monitoring, managing and control. First and foremost is monitoring the disease. There are many monitoring devices on the market and many companies that produce monitoring devices. Most of these companies will usually give newly diagnosed patients their first monitor free. The diabetic’s doctor’s staff can advise and teach the diabetic on using these devices. Glucose daily monitoring is the diabetic’s first line of defense and extremely important for the managing and treatment of this disease.Diet and nutrition will need to be managed as well. An exercise program also needs to be developed to maintain a healthy weight as well as for overall fitness. Exercise is important in keeping blood pressure under control as well as helping medication or insulin therapy work correctly.Diabetics also need to be taught by medical professionals about the importance of managing their eye health, foot care health and good oral health as these can be problem areas for diabetic patients. Because of narrowing of blood vessels, problems can develop with the eyes and diabetic patients need to have regular eye exams involving dilation of the eyes so the eye professional can better examine the blood vessels in the back of the eyes.Another area needing education and management is oral hygiene especially gum health. This is caused by the narrowing of blood vessels in the mouth. So, diabetic patients need to have regular scheduled dental visits and learn good daily gum and teeth care.The most important area of care is foot care. Diabetics have a lot of problems with feet. This happens because of nerve damage in the foot and narrowing of blood vessels in the legs. These two problems together can cause a small cut to become infected easily and can lead to gangrene of the foot. Gangrene often leads to amputation of the leg or foot. But the good news is that all these problems can be prevented with proper foot care. Proper foot care includes daily washing and carefully inspecting the feet for breaks in the skin, small cuts, blisters, corns and calluses. Calluses and corns need to be treated by medical or nursing staff. Small cuts should be treated with antibiotic ointments. It is extremely important to keep toe nails properly trimmed to avoid ingrown toenails as this can also be a source of infection or foot problems.Free diabetes patient education is available in most communities. Newly diagnosed diabetics will be referred to these programs by their primary care physician. Diabetic patient education is the first requirement that newly diagnosed diabetics need. They need to be educated about what causes diabetes as well as the problems that they can encounter They will also need to learn the areas that they will have to have self care responsibility for.Drink lots of water because it is calorie free and helps to flush away the toxins. Did you know that flavored carbonated water has no calories, sugar, body, sweetener, color or preservatives?
Amoeba falls into the class Lobezea of the Protozoa phylum. The Lobezea are organisms which move with the help of pseudopodia. Reproduction is by binary fission. The production of a cyst is one of the stages in the life cycle. Among the pathogenic species for man is the Entamoeba histolytica. The causative agent of human intestinal amoebiasis, or amoebic dysentery.Morphology
Enteroamoeba histolytica occurs in the human body in such forms:1. Entamoeba histolytica forma magna is a vegetative large tissue form which feeds on the erythrocytes and does not become encysted:2. Entamoeba histolytica forma minuta is a vegetative small commensal encysted form which lives in the lumen of the large intestine.3. Cysts which develop from the forma minuta. E.histolytica penetrates into the tissues of the large intestine under the influence of a number of factors (lowered resistance of the human body due to various diseases, intoxications, overheating, overstrian, injuries, substances that cause lysis of cells and tissues. The parasite grows to a size of 30-50 micrometer in diameter and becomes capable of phagocytizing erythrocytes. This vegetative form is known as the tissue form. Entamoeba histolytica forma magna. It is usually found in the mucosanguineous stools (feces with blood and mucus) of patient with amebiasis. The amoeba ectoplasm is translucent, while the endoplasm is granular. The endoplasm contains the nucleus and food vacoules. The nucleus has a central karyosome. Forma minuta is the main form of E.histolitica. Its size ranges from 12 to 25 micrometer. Bacteria in phagocytes are found in small numbers in the endoplasm. Ectoplasm is poorly developed and accumulated in the pseudopodia, motility is decreased. Amoebas inhabit the upper part of the large intestine of a healthy man and known as luminal, cavity or commensal forms. The forma minuta transforms into a cyst. The cyst are spherical in shape with a diameter of 9 to 16 micrometer. They have thin-walled, double membranes, Fully mature cysts contain four nuclei. Immature cysts have one, two and sometimes three nuclei. Cysts are discharged with the feces for a long period of time and sometimes throughout life. They may re-enter the human body with foodstuffs or water and transform into luminal forms in the intestine.Pathogenesis and disease
Fecal-Oral transmission of cysts involves contaminated food or water, Ingested cysts of E.histolytica excysts in the small intestine. Trophozoites (forma minuta) are carried to the colon, where they mature and reproduce. Forma minuta may live in the lumen as being commensal. Successful colonization and transformation of forma minuta into forma magna depends on factors such as intestinal motility, transit time, the presence or absence of specific intestinal flora, the host’s diet. If mucosal invasion occurs, it may be limited to a few simple superficial erosion or it may progress to total involvement of the colonic mucosa with ulceration, most often in the caecum or sigmoid colon. Patients have acute or chronic diarrhoea, which may progress to hemorragic dysentery. Invasion of blood vessels leads to secondary extra-intestinal lesions. Extraintestinal disease may be present as a complication (peritonitis) or as metastasis (liver, lung, skin or brain abscess).Laboratory diagnosis
Fresh stools are examined under the microscope. E.histolytica (forma magna and cysts with 4 nuclei) can be demonstrated in the stools.Prophylaxis
All patients are transferred to a hospital and adequately treated. preventive measures against amoebiasis also include protection of foodstuffs and water from flies and contamination with feces. The staff of catering establishments must be examined for cysts carriage. Health education of the population.Non-pathogenic amoebas can parasite the human gastrointestinal tract. These include Entamoeba gingivalis (Oral Cavity), Entamoeba Coli (large intestine) and E.Coli larger than E.histolytica. Their cytoplasm is granular and the vacuoles contain bacteria, leukocytes, food particles, and glycogen, but no erythrocytes. E.Coli forms cysts with 8 nuclei, E.gingivalis doesn’t form cysts.